The 5 Tuckman’s Stages Of Team Development

This can be a difficult phase due to lack of trust and comfort. The members may share common jokes about the organization for which they work; there may be long silences and uncomfortable pauses. I experienced these stages last spring when I played intramural soccer. My team consisted of me, my friends, and some friends of friends.

Tuckman’s Four Stages of Group Development

Because a work team is a common arrangement within today's business organizations, managers need to understand group behavior and team concepts. Managers must also decide on team size and member roles to gain the maximum contribution from all members. Generally, when organizations form teams, these organizations have specific projects or goals in mind. Team work has shown improvement in performance in many aspects of healthcare in primary health care and public health systems. The evidence suggests that quality of care, patient safety, shortage of manpower, and stress among health care professionals is managed better through an effective team work. It is an excellent and most desirable method but requires good team building and supervision.

Here’s the thing, the line between certain stages can get blurred since team members evolve at different times. Each stage of team development doesn’t necessarily take just as much time as the one that comes after it, nor the one before it. How they trust each other to remain accountable for their tasks without dropping the ball. Not only are you proud of the team development they’ve exemplified, but you’re also proud of their individual capacity to stay in integrity with the quality of their work. You book 1-on-1 meetings with team members to learn about each of their experiences. As you do this, you recognize clear and consistent points with each team member and the benefits of hosting a team retrospective.

Sports Team Stages

These skills are even more important in health sector both in clinical and public health settings. The most distinguishing characteristic of a team is collective vision towards the accomplishment of goals. The team is a symbiotic relationship complementing and supporting each other's skills, communicating openly and clearly with one another and holding themselves mutually accountable.

  • Its members respect and trust each other and strongly believe that every member brings unique skills and strengths to the team and the right competitive spirit to bring the best contribution.
  • It starts from the disagreement and once the conflict escalates the focus shifts from the issues to the person's faults leading to expansion of problem with breakdown of dialogue.
  • These questions reflect conflicts over leadership, structure, power, and authority.
  • Control project budget by client invoicing, setting precise team rates, tracking project-related expenses, and getting timely email notifications in case of a budget threshold.
  • Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile.
  • This is demonstrated through high morale, productivity and engagement.
  • The first stage - forming - is the team or group stage in which the team is initially gathered.

Employees rely on each other, collaborate effectively and there’s a more lighthearted feel to the group. Your team asks questions formulated in ways that are rooted in emotional intelligent practices. They feel confident and comfortable when approaching you with concerns and questions. After the storming stage, they recognize behavioural patterns, strengths and develop foresight for upcoming roadblocks.

Mentoring and coaching skills are a must for leaders and managers. In formal education of health care professionals, mentoring is considered as a fundamental tool for helping people achieve required competencies. Formal and informal mentoring has been increasingly encouraged as a way of supporting people's continuing professional development. Mentoring is primarily the identification and nurturing of potential for the whole person. It can be a long-term relationship, where the goals may change but are always set by the learner. Feedback comes from the mentees – the mentor helps them develop insight and understanding through reflections, that is, becoming more aware of their own experiences and areas of improvement.

What Are The Different Stages Of Group Development?

Your team is already doing an excellent job on its own, so you don’t need to provide much direction now. But you should still hold regular meetings and check-ins—it’s important to keep everyone on track and make sure no one is feeling stuck or left out. By this time, things have really gelled up and the team is now cohesive. The team members feel comfortable in the environment and get along well with each other.

Here at Genesis Recovery, groups are a pivotal part of growth and change within an individual and as a community. These stages can even be applied to group formation in social circles out in our community or growing experiences in everyday life. In this blog post I will discuss Bruce Tuckman’s five stages of Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning, while also giving feedback of my own personal reactions and opinions to this model.

Tuckman’s Four Stages of Group Development

Team leader and members acknowledge each other's contribution and inputs. The team leader steps in early to resolve conflict when it arises. S/he keeps them motivated through recognition and coaches and mentors them when required.

Proper conflict management contributes to higher effectiveness, trust, and openness and results in successful conflict resolution. In organizations where conflict is not viewed positively or as an opportunity for improvement, see conflict as unproductive, unpleasant, and a waste of time and energy. If conflict is not controlled early, it can have damaging effects in the workplace, stifling the growth of departments and deflating employee morale.

At first, people are led by their natural desire to be liked by others and accepted among their peers. After all, when you have to cooperate with someone for a longer period, it’s easier to do it if you get along well. That’s part of the reason HR departments task their job candidates with personality tests — to see whether they’d be adequate in terms of behavior and values.

Group members now trust one another, communicate openly and honestly, and rely on one another with little to no hesitation. They can make decisions and problem solve quickly and effectively, and can now function without guidance and supervision, working as an independent unit. One of the main reasons why it has such staying power is because it helps us understand how people interact with each other in teams. As a project manager, you’re responsible for helping your team members deal with these emotions in a healthy way. Your job as project manager is to keep things running smoothly!


Tuckman’s first of five stages begins with “Forming” in this stage the group is essentially starting up, or meeting for the first time. Forming is explained to be somewhat of a honeymoon stage in which members are fairly polite, individualized, and often very much excited about what is yet to come. Here in the first stage the leader or facilitator plays a more superior role as other members of the group may be unclear of their responsibilities to the group. This is the perfect team development stage to learn about how your team overcomes obstacles and bonds through shared experiences. The norming stage is more harmonious since teams understand why it’s important to ask for help, and how to come to you with questions when they need guidance. To properly and clearly identify these in group form, we use the 4 stages of team development.

The team is wrapping things up and members are being recognized for their contribution to the group. In 1965 Dr. Bruce Tuckman published an article titled “Developmental Sequence in Small Groups” where he focused on the interpersonal relationships of the group members and the impact on task activities . Within that article, Tuckman hypothesized the stages of group development now known as Tuckman’s Model. Borrill C, West MA, Shapiro D, Rees A. Team working and effectiveness in health care. To stimulate appropriate global application of project management for the benefit of the general public.

So, you host a meeting where your team can get to know one another, their work style, and the way they feel appreciated. Blog Actionable articles to help managers improve in their role. If you want a group to work well and achieve whatever they aim to, then it is important for it to pass through every stage introduced by Tuckman.

Tuckman’s Four Stages of Group Development

Typical traits of Adjourning include potential sadness, recognition of team and individual efforts, and disbanding. Features of Norming include purpose and goals are well-understood, more confident, improved commitment, members are engaged and supportive, relief , and developing cohesion. Post-project review, retrospective, or another label), providing an opportunity for individual acknowledgments, and celebrating the team's accomplishments—which may involve a party and possibly an after-party. Characteristics of Forming include questioning, socializing, displaying eagerness, focusing on group identity and purpose, and sticking to safe topics. Strategies for this phase include taking the 'lead,' providing clear expectations and consistent instructions, and quick response times.

For reporting with other organizations, refer to their respective instructions. Strategies for this phase include ‘guiding from the side’ , celebrating successes, and encouraging collective decision-making and problem-solving. He released an updated version of the visual on January 4, 2021. This article features the new version of the Phases of Team Development illustration along with an overview of the characteristics and key strategies for each phase.

Agile Project Management Author And Influencer Scott M Graffius To Speak At Pmi New Zealand

As time went on I was given a role in the community and often argued certain rules and became defiant to change. After overcoming my storming phase of treatment I began to buy into the program, accepting the tasks that were being offered to me. Today I often ask myself at whatever season of life I find myself in… “What stage am I in? ” or better yet paying very close attention to the stages to come. Agile project management thought leader, influencer, and author Scott M. Graffius developed a related custom illustration, Phases of Team Development. It highlights the performance level, characteristics, and proven strategies for each of the phases.

Stage Five: Transforming

Speaking of ends, the Adjourning Stage is the bittersweet cherry on the top of each team and project, and it will happen whether you want it or not. It’s a great opportunity to reflect on your accomplishments and think about what you learned. If the team members have grown attached to the project, they may even mourn the fact that the project is ending and that they need to move on to work on other projects. The Performing stage is what your team is really after — in this stage, you and your team get to enjoy synergy. 💡 To facilitate this transition from the Storming Stage to the Norming Stage, you’re advised to incorporate team management software into your team workflow. Sometimes, subgroups may form around particular opinions or authority figures — which are all clear signs that team cohesion has not happened yet.

Storming is characterized by competition and conflict within the team as members learn to bend and mold their feelings, ideas, attitudes, and beliefs to suit the team organization. Although conflicts may or may not surface as group issues, they do exist. Questions about who is responsible for what, what the rules are, what the reward system is, and what the evaluation criteria are arise. These questions reflect conflicts over leadership, structure, power, and authority.

The Tuckman Ladder Model For Management

The team performs its best to make sure that they come up with better results. All members of the group at this stage, work hard and move towards achieving their goals. Group members are well aware of their roles and work within their domains to further the performance of the group. This leads to a strong bond between the 4 stages of role development group which leads to strong attachments and better output. The team is now more comfortable with each other because no conflicts arise when they are more accepting of each other and know how to deal with various issues. This stage is when the group members have had all their conflicts and are ready to move forward.


The proper transition through creating stages is important and has strong implications for team performance. The teams do not necessarily pass through the above mentioned stages and stay in the stage reached but keep moving back and forth. The various factors, such as, new member join and current members leave, new tasks are assigned, the leadership changes etc keep the teams moving back and forth among various stages.

The team’s productivity should be increasing and perhaps friendships in the group are being formed. The team roles become more fluid as the group members work more cohesively as a single unit. There are scenarios when a group shifts back to the Storming stage or proceeds to the Performing stage quickly without stopping at the Norming stage. For example, this can happen when new tasks appear or if the team members have worked on many projects, and are experienced in team development stages. For a big and successful business, the idea “If you want to do it well do it yourself” doesn’t work.

What Does Tuckmans Model Explain About Team Development?

A group is formed through collective efforts of forming, norming, storming and performing. It shows that the group has been successful in completing its pre-determined objective. Tuckman’s model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style.

The group is now in an optimal state acting as one, clearly more positive cohesive and mature than when the group first started. This model is called the 'Tuckman's stages of team development' and was introduced in 1965. The Educational Psychologist first introduced his concepts in a paper 'Developmental Sequence in Small Groups'. However, Tuckman was only able to include four stages, as the fifth one was introduced by Mary Ann Jensen who was his doctoral student. It basically outlines the five important stages of team development and how a group goes through all these stages to become a single unit.

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